The following reasons for testing are generally included in a comprehensive workplace drug testing program:
Pre-employment Drug Testing: An individual is required to provide a specimen during the job application process. Generally, a negative drug result is required before an employer may offer employment to an individual.
Random Drug Test: An employer selects, using a truly random selection process, one or more individuals from all the employees included in the employer’s workplace drug testing program. A random selection process precludes an employer from attempting to pre-select a particular employee for a drug test.
Reasonable Suspicion/Cause Drug Test: An employee is required to provide a specimen when there is sufficient evidence to indicate that the employee may have used an illicit substance. Typically, the evidence is based on the direct observations made by supervisors or co-workers that an employee has used or possesses illicit substances, exhibits physical symptoms of being under the influence, and has patterns of abnormal or erratic behavior.
Post-accident Drug Test: An employee is required to provide a specimen after being involved in an accident or incident on the job. The results of such a test may provide evidence as to the cause of the accident or incident.
Return to Duty Drug Test: An employee is required to provide a specimen to ensure that the employee is drug-free before being allowed to return to work.
Follow-up Drug Test: An employee is tested at random intervals after returning to work to ensure that the employee remains drug-free.